I note that Atul Gawande (who is in general great, let me clarify where I’m coming from) published recently on two specific examples of a relatively unsuccessful health system, per dollar spent, versus a very successful health system, per dollar spent. The unsuccessful health system was the USA as a whole, and the successful health system was Costa Rica, a middle-income Central American country of five million people.
The reason this is interesting is that Costa Rica is not Singapore, it is not Switzerland, it is not a country that jumps out as having the general organisational talent that tends to translate to successful export-oriented industries, and the associated very healthy GDP per capita with resources to spend on healthcare. It would be completely unremarkable for one more newly-industrially-impressive country to have good health outcomes, and Prof Gawande is correct in underlining how important and interesting this is.
I am writing this post today to give some related perspective, on the difference between health care in the Republic of Ireland (non-NHS) and Northern Ireland (also technically not NHS, given that it is devolved, but on the health side, the HSC in Northern Ireland is pragmatically much the same as the NHS). My own context is that I am a GP who works in both, in Northern Ireland currently in Emergency Medicine.
In Ireland, and elsewhere in the English-speaking world, there is a lot of attention given to the NHS, and there are many voices in .ie that focus on how attractive the NHS is. I fully agree that where I work in the Republic vs. where I work in Northern Ireland, the NHS is more attractive to patients attending hospital, and usually to doctors and nurses, than is the situation in the Republic; but this isn’t the complete picture. A salient fact arguing in this question is that people the Republic live slightly longer in slightly better health that people in Northern Ireland.
Prof Gawande mentions this, but to clarify further: the more we learn about health on a population level, the cheaper the interventions get. Getting the population to not smoke is much cheaper than dealing with the myocardial infarctions and lung cancers that will arise in an appreciable proportion of those who smoke develop them.
Implementing the marketing and agricultural incentives to have people not be obese is much cheaper than paying for the knee replacements and the polypharmacy of dealing with type 2 diabetes, and the home supports to have meals delivered to people who can’t make it to the kitchen to cook because of their body mass index of 70 kg/m².
Vaccinations are cheap, cheap, cheap and very effective.
The most bang for the buck is in this sort of population-level intervention, and this would be even more true if you could amortise it across the population of the US (320 million!).
Unintuitively for most people, the next most effective intervention is likely an available, affable and able primary care physician, see Barbara Starfield’s work. Most people are terrible at judging the possible underlying severity of any symptom, and it turns out, if they can see a doctor soon and without fuss for almost anything, it seems to make them live longer.
And on this subject: statins and blood pressure control are cheaper (especially for the exchequer in our mixed system where many people pay for their drugs) than rehab for debilitating strokes or emergent stents for STEMIs. Cancers picked up earlier are easier treated than cancers picked up later. Type 2 diabetes avoided (or controlled by diet) is cheaper than complicated type 2 diabetes managed with amputation
Secondary care (the hospitals) comes next after primary care. The North and the Republic are reasonably comparable when it comes to public health. The North is a little bit worse on primary care; while there is not (in theory) a need to pay a GP, care is rationed by willingness to keep calling the phone line of the surgery. The incentive to do this is less in the Republic, where private patients are not going to pay without having had contact with a doctor. The two jurisdictions are much less comparable in secondary care, and this comes down to differing political will. In order of most pleasant to least pleasant interactions for patients:
Because you need to train in the public system, because that’s where the medical indemnity is cheaper, and because the public system is so stressful, the usual approach from the (many, the country trains far more doctors than it needs) Irish doctors is to emigrate to Australia after their intern year. This works out well for Australia (.ie offers a good medical education, they get good junior doctors basically for free) and well for the doctors (better weather, more money, better quality of life).
A huge thing I admire about the NHS is NICE, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence. They have spent the money to sit down, hash out, and come to a freely-available conclusion on many questions that twenty years ago would have required the input and the interaction from consultant, a specialist.
Both jurisdictions do the wrong thing in terms of how to direct resources for an individual patient. The German and Dutch model of regulated, private insurance, a »gesetzliche Krankenkasse« that you pay yourself and that is covered by the government once you are unemployed or retired is the correct model; it means that resources follow the sick patient, and the waiting lists that are the scourge of the Irish model (and, but less so, of the NHS model) don’t arise, because suddenly it makes more financial sense for an orthopaedic surgeon to do more hips or knees on Saturday or of an evening. There is less direct financial conflict of interest where the entity paying for the service is not responsible for choosing the standard of care provided, and this reduced financial conflict of interest is to the benefit of the patient.
My understanding (and I may be wrong) of why we haven’t adapted this correct model is that those who are willing to come here to work as managers to change things are mostly from the NHS (rather than the Netherlands or Germany (or, theoretically, Switzerland)). There’s an easy answer to that for the first few managers to implement things; pay more money. Five to ten years of it would do, if these managers are willing to train locals, this isn’t the brain-drained country of 1989, there are plenty of locals perfectly capable of picking up what to do and how to do it. And then you can drop back to the prevailing rate for the current civil servants.
Breeze, and the less exciting echelon problem of actual vs. current. 6th of May, 2021 POST·MERIDIEM 11:26
A friend of mine put up débris as the word of the day in the IRC channel we both join now and then, and that prompted me to look up its etymology, and more particularly whether it is related to English breeze.
Not at all, as it turns out, and the OED2 entry is further of interest in that has an echelon problem in rendering the continental (“standard average European”) actuelle / aktuell / actual etc. as “actual” (which is not the current English meaning) rather than “current” (which is).
Anyway, the full entry for breeze from the second edition of the Oxford English Dictionary below, for your edification.
breeze (briːz), n.² Forms: 6-7 brize, brieze , 7 brise, brese , breze, breaze , 7–8 breez, breese, 7 breeze.
[In 16th c. brize, brieze, app. ad. OSp. (and Pg.) briza (mod.Sp. brisa) ‘north-east wind’ (though, according to Cotgrave, brize also occurs in Fr. (in Rabelais a 1550) = bize, bise ‘north wind’). Cf. also It. brezza ‘cold wind bringing mist or frost’ (Florio), Milanese brisa ‘cool wind from the north’ (Diez). Cotgrave’s brize = bize, supports the suggestion of Diez, that the word was orig. a variant of bisa, bise ‘north east wind’. On the Atlantic sea-board of the West Indies and Spanish Main, briza acquired the transferred senses of ‘north-east trade-wind’, and ‘fresh wind from the sea’, in which it was adopted by the English navigators of the 16th c. The further extension to ‘gentle fresh wind’ generally, is English; cf. the actual F. brise (in the Dict. of the Academy only since 1762).]
† 1. orig. A north or north-east wind; spec. applied within the tropics to the NE. trade-wind.
1565-8b9 Hawkins’ 2nd Voy. in Arb. Garner V. 121 The ordinary brise taking us, which is the north-east wind.
1595 Raleigh Disc. Guiana in Hakluyt Voy. (1600) III. 661 Against the brize and eastern wind.
1604 E. G[rimston] D’Acosta’s Hist. Indies iii. iv. 128 In that Zone..the Easterly windes (which they call Brises) do raine.
a1618 Raleigh Apol. 19 When the Easterly wind or Breeses are kept off by some High Mountaines.
1626 Bacon Sylva §398 The great Brizes which the motion of the Air in great Circles..produceth.
1685 Phil. Trans. XV. 1148 There are continual Eastern winds under the line which they call Brises.
1706 Phillips, Brizes, or rather Breezes, certain Winds, which the motion of the Air in great circles doth produce, refrigerating those that live under the line.
† 2. a. The cool wind that blows from the sea by day on tropical coasts. (This was on the Atlantic sea-board of tropical America an east or north-east wind, i.e. a breeze in sense 1; thence the name was extended to the ‘sea-breeze’ from any point of the compass.) Obs. exc. as in b.
1614 Raleigh Hist. World i. iii. §8 These hottest regions of the World..are..refreshed with a daily Gale of Easternly Wind (which the Spaniards call the Brize).
a1618 — Inv. Shipping 39 Southerly winds (the Brises of our Clymate) thrust them..into the Kings ports.
1627 Capt. Smith Seaman’s Gram. x. 46 A Breze is a wind blowes out of the Sea, and commonly in faire weather beginneth about nine in the morning.
1628 Digby Voy. Medit. 38 Intending to goe in in the morning with the brize.
1665 G. Havers P. della Valle’s Trav. E. Ind. 373 Sending a breeze, or breath, or small gale of wind daily.
1696 Phillips, Breez, a fresh gale of wind blowing off the Sea by day.
1839 Thirlwall Greece II. 307 A strong breeze which regularly blew up the channel at a certain time of the day.
b. Extended to include the counter-current of air that blows from the land by night; hence sea-breeze and land-breeze.
a1700 Dryden (J.) From land a gentle breeze arose by night.
1706 in Phillips.
1731 Bailey II, Breez, a fresh gale of wind blowing from the sea or land alternately for some certain hours of the day or night only sensible near the coast.
1782 Cowper Loss Royal George 9 A land-breeze shook the shrouds.
1832 Macaulay Armada 31 The freshening breeze of eve unfurled that banner’s massy fold.
3. a. A gentle or light wind: a breeze is generally understood to be a lighter current of air than a wind, as a wind is lighter than a gale. ‘Among seamen usually synonymous with wind in general’ (Smyth Sailor’s Word-bk.).
1626 Capt. Smith Accid. Yng. Seamen 17 A calme, a brese, a fresh gaile.
1762 Falconer Shipwr. i. 350 The lesser sails that court a gentle breeze.
1798 Coleridge Anc. Mar. ii. v, The breezes blew, the white foam flew.
1863 C. St. John Nat. Hist. Moray vii. 167 The breeze was gentle, but sufficient to take us merrily over.
b. Slang phrases: to hit, split or take the breeze: to depart; to get (have) or put the breeze up: to get or put the wind up (see wind n.1 10 b).
1910 ‘O. Henry’ Whirligigs xiv. 168 We got to be hittin’ the breeze.
1925 Fraser & Gibbons Soldier & Sailor Words 35 Breeze up, to have the: to be nervous, to have the ‘wind up’.
1931 Runyon Guys & Dolls (1932) 29 And with this she takes the breeze and I return to the other room.
1934 D. L. Sayers Nine Tailors iii. 279 He got a vertical breeze up.
1948 D. Ballantyne Cunninghams 89 She was only making out she hadn’t seen you so’s you wouldn’t get the breeze up.
1951 J. B. Priestley Fest. Farbridge 296 Put the breeze up me.
1959 I. & P. Opie Lore & Lang. Schoolch. x. 193 Expressions inviting a person’s departure, for instance:..sling your hook, split the breeze, [etc.].
a. A disturbance, quarrel, ‘row’. colloq.
1785 Grose Dict. Vulgar Tongue, To kick up a breeze, to breed a disturbance.
1803 Wellington Let. in Gurw. Disp. II. 367 The cession would create a breeze in the Konkan.
1811 — ibid. VII. 320 There was an old breeze between General — and —.
1837 Marryat Dog-Fiend i. xv. (L.), Jemmy, who expected a breeze, told his wife to behave herself quietly.
1865 Sat. Rev. 28 Jan. 119 ‘Don’t be angry, we’ve had our breeze. Shake hands.’
b. A breath of news, whisper, rumour. colloq.
1879 Stevenson Trav. Cevennes 215 There came a breeze that Spirit Séguier was near at hand.
1884 Denver (Colorado) Tribune Aug., Give us a breeze on the subject.
c. slang. Something easy to achieve, handle, etc. orig. U.S.
1928 G. H. Ruth Babe Ruth’s Own Bk. Baseball 299 Breeze, an easy chance.
1958 M. Dickens Man Overboard ix. 136 This will be a breeze for you.
1962 S. Carpenter in Into Orbit 75 All in all, the test was a breeze.
5. Comb., as breeze-borne, -like, -shaken, -swept, -wooing, adjs.
1805 J. Grahame Sabbath, On the distant cairn the watch~man’s ear Caught doubtfully at times the breeze-borne note.
1798 Coleridge Day-Dream ii. 5 A soft and breeze-like feeling.
1802 Wordsw. To H.C., The breeze-like motion.
1742 Young Nt. Th. ii. 300 Fate..hair-hung, breeze-shaken, o’er the gulph A moment trembles.
1872 Calverley Fly Leaves 4 Lingers on, till stars unnumber’d Tremble in the breeze-swept tarn.
1894 G. Bell Safar Nameh 48 On the threshold of his breeze-swept dwelling.
c1830 J. H. Green Morn. Invit. Child 22 The bee hums of heather and *breeze-wooing hill.